By using fossil resources as an energy source, we release CO2 into the atmosphere that was trapped millions of years ago when the atmosphere and land were very different.
Releasing this CO2 at this time is a major mismatch since it is huge amounts of a gas capable of retaining the heat of the sun and therefore of altering the weather patterns.
The current ecosystems are not prepared for such a fast rise in general temperatures, which may have devastating effects for plants, animals and for ourselves.
The battle against climate change is not yet lost, but we must take action TODAY !.
As part of efforts to stop climate change that already affects much of the planet, we must reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, this can be achieved using efficient and clean energy, re-evaluating processes to reduce the footprint and setting clear emission-reduction targets.
We know that in certain processes and given existing and available technology, the reduction of emissions is very difficult. However, we do have a tool that allows us to think about achieving the goal: #CO2neutral.
How does the emissions trading system work?
Carbon offset involves calculating the level of CO2 emissions from different activities and then carrying out an action that involves a reduction of carbon emissions similar to the one we intend to compensate.
What are carbon credits?
Carbon credits aim to help reduce greenhouse gases, especially in the most polluting, industrialized countries.
As the name implies, they are bonds that are used in the Carbon Market (there are two types of carbon markets: regulated ones - for companies and governments that must control their emissions - and voluntary), also known as Certified Emissions Reductions (CER), equivalent to one metric ton of carbon dioxide.
This means that each country has a greenhouse gas (GHG) quota and, if exceeded, can reduce it by buying carbon credits from other less polluting countries.
This system works not only at country level, but also between companies: If a company carries out a project to reduce CO2 emissions on a voluntary basis and is interested in selling its share to another that is required to reduce its gaseous pollutants in another country, it can be done simply, through the Carbon Market.
Projects that reduce these emissions usually related with energy, transportation, agriculture, waste reuse ...
FAO mentions the following examples of Clean Development projects (CDM)
Avoid methane: A company obtaining energy and fertilizer from livestock waste in Pakistan.
Biogas: Capture and combustion of methane from manure in Armenia.
Biomass production: Electricity generation from mustard crop waste in India
Reforestation program: Tree planting for wood, firewood and forage production on degraded lands in Bagepalli, India
Forestation of pastureland: Establishment and management of forest plantations in Tanzania
What does the carbon credit market system consist of?
The carbon bond market consists of the purchase and sale of emission reduction certificates (CERs), emission permits, annually allocated amounts (AAUs), or emission reduction units (ERUs)
How does the carbon credit market work?
The issuing members of each market conduct a voluntary but legally committed effort to meet annual GHG reduction commitments in carbon trading markets.
Those who reduce below the target will have surpluses to be able to trade with or process through the bond market system, while those that have emissions above the established level must acquire contracts called Carbon Financing Instruments, all the above-mentioned run like a stock market.
Who can buy and sell on carbon markets?
Anybody who, within their company, has already or, intends to set up the following types of projects:
Forestry and Agricultural Projects
Energy Projects: -Energy efficiency and renewable energies – Co-generation
Waste Management Projects
What are the benefits of the credits?
In addition to the economic and environmental benefits, there are social benefits, such as jobs created locally or deepening a culture of conservation and care of the environment in the community where these projects are carried out
Environmental pollution l is a problem caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases which are harmful to living things. Knowing what these polluting gases are is essential to preventing their appearance.
Gaseous pollutants are elements that in high concentrations in the atmosphere cause risks and problems for the environment and for living beings.
Some of the mechanisms that cause these polluting gases are of natural origin such as volcanoes, but the problem arises in industrial processes involving the combustion of fossil fuels or the excessive use of road transport, among others.
Among the most common polluting gases are:
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Nitrogen oxide (NOx)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Presence of these gases around the world
The United Nations Secretariat on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Google have created a world map with emissions generated in major industrialized countries.
The data, collected since 1990, can be observed by sector and compared both by country and by category.
The data of this world map allows the countries to be ordered according to their total emission data in relation to the base year 2009 and to identify with colors the trend towards an increase in or a reduction of this concept.
The result is not favorable for Spain, since it is among the 5 countries that have increased their emissions (29%), along with Turkey, Malta or Australia.
On the contrary, there are several Eastern European countries such as Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine or Romania which are among the best positioned having managed to reduce emissions by more than 50%.
Studies by T & E show that three-quarters of freight is transported by road, and although only 3% of the vehicles are trucks, they account for 25% of CO2 emissions in Europe.
In the last 20 years, the efficiency of truck consumption has not been improved, and, in addition, trucks are related to 15% fatal accidents.
This is because the current European law 96/53 limits the size of the cabin of these vehicles.
In recent years, the environmental impact of road transport has been the subject of extensive studies by the European Commission, which have recently culminated in the publication of the Clean Fuels Strategy.
This document proposes an ambitious package of measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and other pollutant emissions for road transport, as 94.8% of consumption is based on oil products and in recent years it has been the sector that has contributed the most to increasing pollutant emissions * in Europe
Spain is no stranger to this situation. Road transport accounts for 32% of the total final energy consumed in Spain and, despite the growing presence of biofuels in recent years, petroleum products still account for more than 80% of energy used in road transport consumption and accounts for 22.4% of total GHG emissions in Spain.
In addition, the limited presence of other modes of freight transport has led to an increase in fuel consumption linked to economic activity.
* The various atmospheric pollutants linked to exhaust emissions in road transport, considering such pollutant indicators as; abundant presence and having known effects on health and the environment.